This research focuses on determining the drivers and factors that influence conversion to organic rice farming to better inform local and national policies. It provides an insight into the procedures in the decision-making process of farmers and the practices they use. Questionnaire and interview data from farmers in the leading rice production region, Surin, were analyzed using logistic regression to understand the drivers of organic rice farming and the barriers and challenges of adapting to this practice. The findings highlight the critical role of extension farm officers in promoting, educating, and motivating farmers to adopt organic farming. The ability to access (affordable) loans through local cooperative and land ownership was also a key motivational factor. Young people (under 25) are not engaging with farming generally, and this is a major barrier to long-term growth of the organic rice industry in Thailand.