Mountainous South Kivu is an agropastoral zone in Democratic Republic of Congo where small-scale agriculture is predominant. Due to its location and potential, this region contributes to the food security of the population of South Kivu and neighboring territories. This research aimed to establish a characterization of small-scale farming in this area in order to highlight the factors that differentiate farms. To achieve this objective, we adopted a holistic approach coupled with descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and Student's t-test for data analysis. Data were collected from a purposive sample of 211 farmers in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that differentiation of farms is based on the number of plots per farm, the choice of production systems, the cropping system, the land tenure, the gross margin, the gross value added, and the net farm income achieved at farm level. Therefore, solutions such as access to finance allowing farmers to diversify their production system, the restoration of security in rural areas, the rehabilitation of the existing and creation of new feeder roads, and the setting and promotion of very strong and dynamic farmers' structures would allow a significant development of agricultural activities in the study area.