Barley is a globally important strategic cereal crop, which grows well under various climatic and drought-stress conditions. In Egypt, barley is a major winter crop cultivated in old and newly reclaimed lands that suffer from a lack of irrigation, low soil fertility, and salinity of both soil and water. However, there is a lack of awareness of the nutritional role of barley for both humans and animals. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the actual status of cultivated areas of barley, especially in newly reclaimed lands in Egypt during the period (2004/2005–2018/2019). The study is based on descriptive and quantitative analysis using means, growth rates, relative importance, and robust regression. Results show that barley cultivated areas in newly reclaimed lands represented about 76.9% of total cultivated areas during (2004/2005–2018/2019). It means that barley is more adaptable in dry and marginal areas, meaning it is a sustainable plant that can face drought, land degradation, and climate change. Also, production costs, farm prices, and net return of barley are the most important factors that affect the producer’s decision to cultivate barley during the study period. In addition, there is excessive use of some variables during the study period; after estimating the production function of barley using robust regression, it is shown that it is necessary to reduce these variables in the production process to achieve economic efficiency.