The adoption of technological innovations, such as an improved variety, has been widely promoted worldwide to improve agricultural productivity. This study aimed to examine factors affecting farmers’ decision to adopt a new improved cassava varieties (NICV), and to estimate the effects of NICV adoption on farmers’ technical efficiency. This research used cross-sectional data from 300 cassava farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by probit regression to examine factors affecting farmers’ decision to adopt NICV. Propensity score matching (PSM) procedures and stochastic frontier analysis were applied to evaluate the impact of NICV adoption on farmers’ technical efficiency. The results indicated that adoption was highly influenced by cooperative membership, access to credit, internet access, certified land, and off-farm work. The stochastic frontier analysis, by controlling the matched sample using PSM procedures, demonstrated that NICV adoption positively and significantly impacted farmers’ technical efficiency. Those who adopted NICV showed a higher technical efficiency level than those who did not. This finding implies that improved varieties could be further promoted to increase productivity. The research suggests that there is a need to improve NICV adoption to increase the levels of technical efficiency and productivity.