The dispute between Thailand and CambodiaoverthePreahVihear temple that led to tension and skirmishes between the two neighbors in Southeast Asia was a result of two main causes. First, the dispute had its origin in the boundary settlements made in the period 1904 to 1908 between France and Siam (Thailand). In 1962, although the International Court of Justice (ICJ) awarded the temple to Cambodia, but the frontier around the site remains in dispute. This ambiguity creates what Thailand calls the4.6 square kilometers disputed area and what Cambodia recognizes as an integral part of its territory. Second, domestic politics of both countries, especially political turmoil in Thailand, is another cause that contributes to the serious dispute between Thailand and Cambodiain recent years. The latest dispute was stimulated by Thailand’s unsuccessful attempt to protest Cambodia from unilaterally nominating the temple as a World Heritage site in 2008. Afterwards, the confrontation between the two neighbors erupted into violence several times during 2008-2011. The PreahViheardispute between Thailand and Cambodia implies a larger conflict over borders and territory sovereignty. Even though the dispute is localized but it is likely to remain a protracted conflict into the near future.