English learning motivation of ESL learners from ethnic, gender, and cultural perspectives in sustainable development goals
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Culture, ESL learning, Ethnicity, Gender, Influence, Motivation, Sustainable development.

How to Cite

Ramzan, M. ., Oteir, I. ., Khan, M. A., Al-Otaibi, A. ., & Malik, S. . (2023). English learning motivation of ESL learners from ethnic, gender, and cultural perspectives in sustainable development goals. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 12(3), 195–212. https://doi.org/10.55493/5019.v12i3.4840


The aim of this study was to examine the English language learning motivation of Pakistani students by viewing ethnicity, gender, and culture because Pakistan is multi-ethnic and cultural country with wide dimensions. The study was examined with reference to UN directed 17 sustainable development goals, with special reference to Goal No 4 related to education. A sample of 602 participants from 39 Pakistani public and private sectors’ universities was taken as participants of this research. The research was done by adapting a questionnaire as a research tool, and L2 motivational self-system was taken as a theoretical framework. The collected data via questionnaire response was statistically analyzed by using SPSS 26 software. The results indicated that in Pakistan, all four types of internal motivational structure, i.e., immediate achievement, learning situation, intrinsic interest, and personal development, existed in students of English as second Language learners’ motivation. The highest value among the four factors of motivation was 2.57 in personal development factor, and the lowest mean value was in learning situations. There is no significant statistical variation among gender in all four types of motivational structures. In English learning motivation, urban students were comparatively higher motivated in all motivational internal factors. Furthermore, only Pathan and Kashmiri students had a significant variation, and the motivation of Pathan ethnicity was higher than Kashmiri in all motivational aspects. This research would be a useful insight for English teachers and students in an intracultural environment infused with ethnicity and multi-gender student population.

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