An Exploratory Study of Non-Technological Gamified Lessons in a Lithuanian ESL Classroom
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EFL, ELT, ESL, Gamification, Higher education, L2 acquisition, L2 Learning, Motivation, Non-technological gamification.

How to Cite

Annamalai, N. ., Zakarneh, B. ., Eltahir, M. E. . ., Salhi, N. R. A. ., & Zyoud, S. H. . (2022). An Exploratory Study of Non-Technological Gamified Lessons in a Lithuanian ESL Classroom. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 11(4), 167–180.


The primary goal of this paper is to promote the use of gamification as a teaching tool in English language teaching and learning by emphasizing its worth and that gamified lessons can be utilized as a significant didactic tool by teachers to accomplish many learning objectives, including introducing, reviewing, and evaluating didactic topics while simultaneously raising students' motivation, focus, and learning autonomy. This qualitative case study investigated how non-technological gamified lessons enhanced English language learning in a Lithuanian English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom. Non-technology gamification is an understudied area but has the potential to offer valuable insights into English language learning. Qualitative data were collected from interviews and unstructured observations to identify participants' positive and negative experiences. The emerging themes were identified based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT). However, certain challenges were noted during activities that involved touching another participant, unhappy with the materials used and blurred learning outcomes were identified. The unstructured observations indicated that the participants were making attempts to speak in English, engaged and motivated during the activities and were involved in teamwork. The study makes a relevant contribution to scholarship by showing the positive potential of non-technological gamification in English language learning particularly in listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Based on the findings, the study provides certain pedagogical implications to encourage teachers to integrate gamified lessons into their pedagogical practices.
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