Exploration of undergraduate students lived experiences of using a chatbot for English language learning
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Chatbot, English language learning, ICAP framework, Interaction, Lived experiences, Phenomenology.

How to Cite

Annamalai, N. ., Zakarneh, B. ., Mangaleswaran, S. ., & Zyoud, S. H. . (2023). Exploration of undergraduate students lived experiences of using a chatbot for English language learning. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 12(3), 254–268. https://doi.org/10.55493/5019.v12i3.4876


The present study aimed at comprehensively understanding how English language learners benefit from using chatbots. The researchers utilized purposive sampling to undergraduate students who were enrolled in the General English language course during the final semester of 2021 at a public university in Malaysia. With a phenomenological perspective at its core, this study conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 students. The interview data analysis followed Braun and Clarke (2006) thematic analysis approach. The data was analyzed using an inductive approach based on the Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP) framework categorizing and passive learning modes. Results revealed that three of these- passive, active and constructive modes gave exposure to students about language materials via meaningful activities contributing towards their overall proficiency in the subject matter; while in the interactive mode of learning through chats - responsiveness was an issue.  The study recommends that instructors should act as facilitators to help learners by guiding interactions or providing necessary support/scaffolding so that they receive a more productive experience of instruction from chatbots integrated under the ICAP framework. The proposed pedagogical model serves as quintessential counsel for policymakers and educationists who aim to augment language learning results across diverse educational settings.

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